It must be taken into account that one of the most frequent traumas appears as a consequence of gender violence: abuse and rape, which also occur in girls and boys and in the family environment. Often the abuse goes unnoticed by the adults around you and is difficult to detect even in the course of therapy.
There are indications that these traumas are more damaging than those that occur in contexts of physical violence without sexual abuse Perhaps it is because they affect attachment relationships and adult bonding. Classifications of mental illness, such as DSM 5, are descriptions of behaviours that appear associated with disorders; but they do not give an explanation of the causes or the processes that underlie the appearance of these psychological problems.
Post-traumatic stress disorder is an exception, as it is the only anxiety disorder that is recognized as having a specific event or situation that causes it. The cause is the traumatic event and, when it leads to a psychological disorder, the consequences are the behaviours described in the diagnostic criteria. However, the processes that link cause and effect are not explained.
In this section, we are going to expose a series of processes that account for how trauma can produce post-traumatic stress disorder, which will allow us to shed light on how to treat it. Each person subjected to a traumatic attack or threat reacts differently. Thus, 64% do not develop a psychological disorder considered as such. So what are the circumstances that must come together for a psychological disorder to appear? In children undergoing traumatic events, characteristics that can predict those most likely to develop post-traumatic stress disorder have been studied. The existence of present problems at the moment of the fact is the ones that best predict it. These include the previous existence of short-term post-traumatic stress, depression, anxiety, and parents having post-traumatic stress.