When the requirements of urban mobility cannot be satisfied for a variety of reasons by urban transport systems, then most transport problems take place. A high level of concentration and accumulation of economic activities is present in cities. The complex infrastructure supports the complex spatial structures, involving transport systems.The larger a city, the higher it is potential for disruptions and complexity is, precisely when effective management is lacked concerning complexity. Moreover, urban productivity is increasingly dependent on the effectiveness of its transport system for moving freight, consumers, and labor between different destinations and origins.
Additionally, a particular array of challenges is contributed by transport terminals like rail yards, airports, and ports that are located within urban areas. Some of them are new such as environmental impacts or urban freight distribution, whereas some are old such as cities like Rome being plagued by congestion. In vast urban agglomerations, one of the most apparent problems with modern forms of transport is congestion. The drivers of the 21st century are influenced by congestion in contrast to the drivers of the 20th century. Congestion is explicitly linked with the diffusion of the automobile and motorization that also enhanced the demand for infrastructures of transport. However, the growth of mobility has not been maintained by the supply of infrastructures. Since the majority of the time parked is spent on vehicles. Thereby, the demand for parking space has been expanded by motorization. This eventually has also resulted in problems related to space consumption, specifically in central areas where it is vital to have the spatial imprint of parked vehicles. Further, since transport capacity is significantly consumed by street parking, there an interrelation is present between parking and congestion. For circulation along urban roads, one or two lanes must be removed. Further, additional delays are created by cruising that is referred to as the hunt for a valid parking space.